Southern Europe      October 2018

Trip Overview


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This overview is is designed to clarify the rather complicated structure of our trip to the southern part of Europe.  Specifically we visited the countries of France, Italy, Portugal and Spain and their areas that touch the Mediterranean (or the Atlantic in the case of Portugal).  The areas share a common history:  settled by Celt tribes followed by Phoenicians,  Greeks, Romans (Carthaginians through war), Visigoths, Moors (Spain) the Kings of Mallorca (Catalonia), Spain and France.   For much of the time the inhabitants had to deal with the scourge of intermittent raids by Barbary Pirates who were looking to enslave their captives.   Piracy remained a problem until the 1830's.  Before that kingdoms established strings of forts and watch towers with which to warn communities of impending attack.